Wood procurement teams in the forest products industry must simultaneously meet the raw material cost, quality, and volume requirements of their firms while accounting for long-term raw material sustainability and satisfying environmental performance standards. This study synthesizes 208 published studies on forest operations efficiency and environmental improvements to (1) specify applicable forest operations costs and environmental savings, (2) highlight areas of synergy between operational efficiency gains/cost savings and environmental improvements, and (3) identify critical gaps in the existing literature to help prioritize future research. This research synthesis highlights several areas of operational and environmental synergies related to forest harvesting, log transportation, and the storage of wood raw materials. In comparing research across topics and US regions, this study specified “practical” and “relevance” tests for identifying key research gaps. Areas identified for additional research were specific questions related to biomass harvesting and trucking logistics.